CONVENTION ON WOMEN'S POLITICAL RIGHTS

In December 1952, the UN General Assembly (UN) voted on the Convention on the Political Rights of Women, documented on March 31, 1995, recognizing that everyone has the right to participate in the government of their country, equality between men and women to be able to vote and be voted.

It is curious to note that the very language used in the text of the convention means that women should be on an equal conditions with men, showing that they are the parameter of the subject of rights and women are the unequal “other”, which needs affirmative actions, of social and legal mobilization so that their rights are recognized.

[1]
1 Convention on women's political rights 2  Article I: Women has right to vote in every elections in equal conditions with men, without any kind of discrimination. Article II: Women will be eligible for all public organisms electives established by national legislation, in condition of equality with men, without any kind of discrimination. Article III: Women has right to hold public offices and exercise all public functions established by national legislation, in condition of equality with men, without any kind of discrimination
[2] Fonte: https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1954/07/19540707%2000-40%20AM/Ch_XVI_1p.pdf

This Convention was only ratified by Brazil in 1963. Despite the fact that it took a decade to formally adhere to the equality precepts contained in the document, the right to vote for women was recognized in 1932, in the reform of the electoral legislation promoted by Getúlio Vargas.

The text of the bill initially introduced restrictions on exercise, such as the permission to vote only for single women and widows and with their own income. However the feminist movement opposed these limitations and won the right to Vote for Women in the Electoral Code, Decree-Law No. 21,076 of 1932.

Thus, literate women over the age of 21 could register as voters and candidates. In 1933, after the National Constituent Assembly was installed, Brazil elected its first female deputy, Carlota Pereira de Queirós.

Several countries only recognized the right to vote and to stand for women many years later. For example, Saudi Arabia women were actually able to vote only in 2015. As a curiosity, look at the map that points to the year in which each country recognized this right:


Fonte: https://uvesp.com.br/portal/noticias/este-mapa-mostra-o-ano-em-que-as-mulheres-tiveram-o-direito-de-votar-em-cada-pais-do-mundo/

It is also worth mentioning which women we are talking about when it comes to recognizing the right to vote, understanding that we live in a racist socio-economic system. Returning to the text of the Convention, there is no reservation about seeking equal exercise of the right to vote (vote and be voted) regardless of race, seeking to overcome the obstacles of an unequal system.

Thus, it is important to understand that the political rights of women must be guaranteed for all: black, indigenous, quilombola[3] women, in short, all. Only the plurality of women in the political debate will bring about social change (which we so desire).



References:

MARQUES, Teresa Cristina de Novaes. O voto feminino no Brasil. Brasília: Câmara dos Deputados, Edições Câmara, 2018.

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conven%C3%A7%C3%A3o_sobre_os_Direitos_Pol%C3%ADticos_da_Mulher#:~:text=A%20Conven%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20sobre%20os%20Direitos,dos%20direitos%20pol%C3%ADticos%20das%20mulheres.

https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1954/07/19540707%2000-40%20AM/Ch_XVI_1p.pdf

http://www.direitoshumanos.usp.br/index.php/Direitos-da-Mulher/convencao-sobre-os-direitos-politicos-da-mulher.html

https://uvesp.com.br/portal/noticias/este-mapa-mostra-o-ano-em-que-as-mulheres-tiveram-o-direito-de-votar-em-cada-pais-do-mundo/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e88IJJv7PLQ

https://brasil.elpais.com/brasil/2015/05/01/internacional/1430473784_207874.html


[1] Convention on women's political rights


[2] Article I: Women has right to vote in every elections in equal conditions with men, without any kind of discrimination.

Article II: Women will be eligible for all public organisms electives established by national legislation, in condition of equality with men, without any kind of discrimination.

Article III: Women has right to hold public offices and exercise all public functions established by national legislation, in condition of equality with men, without any kind of discrimination [3] Quilombola is an Afro-Brazilian resident of quilombo, a place settle for harbor who escaped from slavery in Brazil during the period.


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Write by

Cristiane Duarte

Feminist lawyer active in the area of family law and defense of women’s right.




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Translation by

Karen Poltronieri

Librarian, English Teacher and Feminist master student with project in favor of the end of violence against women.


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